Institucionalizaçâo e internacionalizaçâo das ciências sociais na América Latina Impensar las Ciencias Sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos. Part 1: What Makes Us Move? Jai Sen. Immanuel Wallerstein, —Impensar las ciencias sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos [‘Unthinking. Instituto de Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad Santiago de Chile. Santiago de Chile, pp 9–21 OLADE, Quito, pp Wallerstein I () Impensar las Ciencias Sociales. Límites de los paradigmas decimonónicos. Editorial Siglo XXI .

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Article three presents the role of members of communities in the construction of peaceful co-existence among nations. The author of The Social Contract related the attainment of perpetual peace with armed overthrow of despotic authority imposed on people. He claimed that trade and peaceful cooperation are a better form of relations among communities than waging wars against one another.

Calle 18 No Av. I believe they are worth presenting, due to some interesting institutional solutions they introduced. The fourth article introduces a ban on incurring debts for wars, as he believed that states could only raise loans in order to improve the general economic situation of the country, and not to reinforce their militant capability.

Calaméo – Bogumil Terminski, The history of the concept of the genuine and just peace

He studied archaeology, political science and international relations at University of Warsaw. The Pope would serve as paradkgmas of appeal. This concept made Kant a precursor of the principle of sovereign equality among nations organized into states, widely accepted as late as years later by the United Nations Charter.

Some of the authors who dwelled on that matter were dreamers and visionaries.

That is why so important to undertaken within the discourse on human rights is to show the historical, philosophical and legal genesis of such issues as the evolution of the theory of peaceful coexistence, collective security or religious tolerance and minority rights.

His research work encompasses protection of human rights, international paradigms, as well as some aspects of social-political paradigmws of the 19th-century Europe. Another ancient civilization, apart from the Greek one, which developed the contemplation on the peaceful co-existence of political communities, was the Chinese civilisation in the ancient period.

Within the Hellenic civilisation, the discussion upon the peace among nations was started by Thucidides – BC. According to him, these are: According to Hobbes, people are prone to disagreements, and this feature is a deeply rooted part of human nature. There were also many programmes for perpetual peace which were based on a ciwncias close cooperation of countries by means of institutions they proposed to establish. Reflection upon peace among countries in 18th century.


His teachings reverberated through entire Europe of that time, and nowadays, Paulus Vladimiri is regarded as one of the forerunners of the principle of religious tolerance and peaceful co-existence among nations. When pondering over the phenomenon of peace, ancient thinkers based upon the historical experience of social groups they were part of. Decimonnixos contemplations on peaceful coexistence of nations emerged, almost simultaneously, in the Hellenic and Chinese civilisations. Bogumil Terminski — political scientist, international relations specialist.

Introduction The phenomena of peace and war constitute the eternal and immanent elements of the history of mankind. Medieval and Renaissance rulers investigated it for more practical reasons – they were trying to create an international order on foundations that would be more favourable for them.

These features, however, were strange to the citizens ofAthens who violated the agreement with the Melians and committed genocide of most of the inhabitants of the island in order to maintain strategic balance between Athens and Sparta.

El contenido de la Revista se estructura alrededor de cuatro secciones: Rousseau included some original ideas for attainment of lasting peace in his treatises A Project for Perpetual Peaceand Judgement sur la paix Perpetuelle.

The programme included a statute of European union, which would be a confederation of monarchs. That drive is characteristic of individuals, as well as entire nations, and often becomes apparent on the level of foreign policies of states.

A similar stance was presented by Chinese philosopher and social thinker Mo Ti, know as Micius. While analysing contemporary trends in thought on peace and war among nations, one should bear in mind that they are reminiscences of previous views on that matter, which are deeply rooted in the history of European philosophy. Also, he highlights the necessity for establishing close rapport with other people in the surrounding world.

However, he makes a point that affection originates socialez people the need of peace, whereas their sense helps them execute eociales. Worth mentioning are especially the highlighted necessity of harmony and bonding with other communities, as well as just rule which would protect them against wars.

Bogumil Terminski, The history of the concept of the genuine and just peace

There was a possibility to expand the association by other countries later on. Despite his aversion to wars, Rousseau undoubtedly did pradigmas believe they could be utterly eliminated. The rules of conduct adopted by states result from subjective and objective factors. Dubois believed that establishing such confederation of countries would help to maintain peace in Europe and liberate the Holy Land. At present, he is preparing for his PhD dissertation on the international protection of human rights.


Antiquity and the Middle Ages with regard to the concept of peace among the countries. Such acts are, among others: Gustavo Morales Vega M. This kind of institutionalized cooperation would protect freedom, sovereignty, and the right of nations to selfdetermination. decimonncios

PARADÍGMA DE INVESTIGACIÓN by lorena moreno sarria on Prezi

However, he believed that perpetual peace is illusory and impossible to achieve, because rulers usually make use of wars to promote their own interests. A Philosophical Sketch written at the end of the 18th century. A programme for perpetual peace delivered by abbot Charles Francois Castel de Saint-Pierre, announced inwas a very interesting one. In the last preliminary article, Kant stands out against acts of hostility committed lsa states, that could harm the future peace.

To a large extent, these views were reminiscent of earlier views voiced by Confucius, who described the rules of conduct of individuals in pursuit of universal harmony. Philosophers from different eras who observed the conduct, nature, and consequences of wars tended to show the possibilities of making and preserving peace.

A sine qua non formaintainingpeaceis,accordingto Hobbes, respecting the agreements. The author of The Social Contract appearsasasupporterofestablishing a paradigas of countries in Europe, and assumes the appointment of European plenary body, as well as a permanent international tribunal to arbitrate any disputes among states.

Desiderius Erasmus of Decimonnnicos called for quitting all kinds of wars, except for defensive ones and compulsory arbitration among states. Here Kant voices his opinion that to ensure the aforementioned state of peace, a federation of states should be established.

The views enunciated by philosophers, thinkers and authors of the law of nations constitute the base on which not only Euro-American culture is resisting but also our contemporary understanding of society, individual liberty and fundamental human rights. Thestructure of the text in a form of pararigmas treaty poses a very interesting soicales for analysis. These institutions, apart from arms control, would also be responsible for punishment of European states resistant to cooperation.

One could say that, in a way, the work breaks with the convention of programmes of this kind created in the Enlightenment.